"Civil society organizations (CSOs) have strived to improve their own effectiveness and accountability as independent development actors since the landmark adoption of the 8 Istanbul Principles for CSO Development Effectiveness in 2010, and the Siem Reap CSO Consensus on the International Framework for CSO Development Effectiveness in 2011. Five years since Istanbul and Siem Reap, there is a need for an assessment of the actual state of CSO Development Effectiveness and Accountability in order to scale up previous initiatives and identify action points to address challenges. This action research is composed of eleven reports from seven countries and four sectors, aimed at: • Assessing CSO progress, challenges and opportunities in the implementation of the Istanbul Principles, in the context of different types of CSOs and the roles they play vis-a-viz the environment for civil society. • Come up with possible recommendations for CSOs in which CPDE could lend its expertise. • Come up with policy recommendations for governments and other stakeholders to provide capacity development support for civil society initiatives at development effectiveness and accountability. These reports are valuable sources of evidence that show CSOs are making good on their commitment to implement the Istanbul Principles and develop their own accountability. "