"The landscape of international development cooperation is changing. Two decades ago, Northern donors – member countries of the DAC OECD and the Bretton Woods Institutions – were the overwhelming source of international development assistance. In recent years however, a rising scale and scope of assistance being provided by large middle income countries, notably China, Brazil and India, has reinvigorated the South-South Cooperation (SSC). While nowhere near the scale of Northern aid, SSC now makes up a sizable share of international development assistance. South-South cooperation has been practiced in numerous ways ranging from economic integration, the formation of negotiating blocs within multilateral institutions, military alliances, to cultural exchanges. As such, SSC is a much broader and deeper concept than foreign aid. But for the purpose of this paper, the focus is on SSC that most closely resembles ODA. As SSC is expected to expand and increase in importance, it is essential for CSOs to better understand the nature, shortcomings and potential SSC in order to inform and strengthen CSO advocacy for greater development effectiveness of aid."